This current within Japanese Marxism is named after Kazuo Fukumoto, the theorist and politician. In the early 1920s, Fukumoto was in contact with and was influenced by Georg Lukács and Karl Korsch.

After returning to Japan, Fukumoto adopted a leading position in the Communist Party for a short period; however, from 1928 he was placed in political prison. Fukumoto’s work, which can be described as a variant of Lukàcsian Bolshevism, greatly influenced the Japanese left-wing intelligentsia in the 1920s.