Anarchists and Marxists have both undertaken attempts to combine environmental and socialist perspectives. Marxist representatives of eco-socialism include Manuel Sacristan (from Spain), the Brazilian-born sociologist and philosopher Michael Löwy and John Bellamy Foster from the US.

The eco-socialist debate is continues and is currently focused on climate policy; important voices include Andreas Malm (from Sweden), and the views of the German political scientist Elmar Altvater are also being discussed in this context.