Maoism (from 1949)
Maoism is based on the writings and policies of Mao Zedong and reached the apex of its importance in China following the revolution of 1949. Around 1970, Mao's China became an important reference point for anti-imperialist and national liberation movements in Africa, Asia and Latin America, as well as for parts of the New Left and the student movement in the West, given its particular approach, which promised an independent socialism, distinct from that of the Soviet Union. Occasionally, Mao even became a pop icon of sorts. Thematically, Maoism is strongly oriented to advancing the endeavours of the "classics" (Marx, Engels and Lenin), as well as to political practice, although it also invoked Chinese philosophy and developed a kind of social ethic.